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Why do Fixed Deposit Interest Rates Change Frequently?

Have you ever wondered why the interest rates on Fixed Deposits change frequently? You have come to the right place as this article will provide an explanation. Fixed Deposits (FDs) are a type of financial instrument banks and other financial institutions offer.

They are popular among investors who seek a secure and stable way to grow their savings.

To run a Fixed Deposit account, an individual (or entity) deposits a lump sum amount with a bank or financial institution for a fixed tenure at a predetermined interest rate.

Understanding How Fixed Deposit Interest Rates Work

With Fixed Deposit (FD) accounts, the depositor receives a fixed interest rate on the principal amount throughout the maturity period.

Here's a breakdown of how fixed deposit interest rates work:

Principal Amount

This is the initial amount of money you deposit into the fixed deposit. The interest rate is applied to this principal amount.

Interest Rate

The interest rate is the percentage of the principal amount that the bank pays you as interest over the fixed tenure. Fixed deposit interest rates can vary from one bank to another and may also depend on the tenure of the deposit.


The tenure or maturity period is the duration for which you agree to keep the money deposited. FDs can have tenures ranging from a few days to several years. Generally, the longer the tenure, the higher the interest rate offered.

Interest Calculation

The interest on a fixed deposit is typically compounded quarterly, although some banks may use different compounding frequencies.

Compound interest means that the interest earned in each period is added to the principal amount, and subsequent interest calculations are based on this new total.

Payout Frequency

You can choose how you want to receive the interest earned. It can be paid out at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, half-yearly, or annually). It can also be reinvested and paid out at the time of maturity.


Depending on the existing tax laws, interest earned on fixed deposits is taxable. In some cases, financial institutions may offer tax-saving fixed deposits with specific lock-in periods and tax benefits.

Premature Withdrawal

If you need to withdraw your money before the maturity date, the bank may charge a penalty, and the interest rate could be lower than the promised rate. The penalty and conditions for premature withdrawal vary among banks.

Renewal or Withdrawal at Maturity

At the end of the fixed deposit tenure, you can choose to renew the deposit for another term or withdraw the principal along with the interest earned.

It's essential to carefully read the terms and conditions of the fixed deposit, including the interest rate, compounding frequency, and any penalties or fees associated with premature withdrawal.

Additionally, comparing fixed deposit rates among different banks can help you choose the option that best suits your financial goals.

Factors That Affect Fixed Deposit Interest Rates

Several factors influence fixed deposit interest rates, and these rates can vary among different banks and financial institutions.

Here are some key factors that commonly affect fixed deposit interest rates:

1. Market Interest Rates

The prevailing interest rates in the broader financial market significantly impact fixed deposit rates. Banks often adjust their fixed deposit rates based on changes in the interest rate environment set by the Central Banks of Nigeria or influenced by market conditions.

2. Economic Conditions

The overall economic conditions of the country, such as inflation rates, economic growth, and monetary policy, can influence fixed deposit interest rates. Inflation, in particular, is a key factor, as banks aim to provide real (inflation-adjusted) returns to depositors.

3. Central Bank Policies

The monetary policy decisions made by the CBN, such as changes in the benchmark interest rates, can influence the interest rates set by commercial banks.

If the central bank raises or lowers interest rates, it can lead to corresponding adjustments in fixed deposit rates.

4. Liquidity Needs of Banks

The liquidity requirements of banks can affect the rates they offer on fixed deposits. If a bank needs to attract more deposits to meet its funding needs, it may offer higher interest rates on fixed deposits.

5. Competition Among Banks

Competition in the banking sector plays a role in determining fixed deposit rates. Banks may adjust their rates to remain competitive and attract deposits from customers. Banks with higher capital or funding needs may offer more attractive rates.

6. Credit Demand

Banks need to balance their deposit and lending activities. If there is a high demand for loans, banks may offer higher interest rates on fixed deposits to attract more funds.

7. Government Policies

Government policies, including fiscal policies and regulations related to banking, can impact fixed deposit rates. For example, tax policies on interest income may influence the attractiveness of fixed deposits as an investment option.

8. Credit Ratings of Banks

The creditworthiness of a bank can affect the interest rates it offers on fixed deposits. Banks with higher credit ratings may be able to offer slightly lower rates since their stability is usually means lower risk.

9. Tenure of the Fixed Deposit

The duration for which the fixed deposit is held (tenure) is a crucial factor. In general, longer-term fixed deposits tend to offer higher interest rates compared to shorter-term deposits.

10. Market Conditions and Demand for Funds

Overall market conditions, including global economic trends and demand for funds in the financial markets, can influence interest rates on fixed deposits.

It's important to note that these factors connect to one another, and changes in one can influence the others.

Additionally, interest rates can vary, not only among banks but also among different types of fixed deposit products offered by the same bank.

By visitng nairaCompare, you can stay informed about market conditions and compare rates from various banks when considering fixed deposit investments.

importance of fixed deposit
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Are Fixed Deposits a Safe and Reliable Investment Option

Investors usually consider fixed deposit a safe and reliable investment option, especially for those who prioritise capital preservation and a predictable return.

Here are some reasons why investors consider fixed deposits safe:

Capital Preservation

The principal amount invested in a fixed deposit is typically secure, and you are likely to receive it back in full at the end of the tenure. This makes fixed deposits a safer option compared to investments like stocks, where the value can fluctuate.

Guaranteed Returns

The interest rate on fixed deposits is fixed at the time of investment, providing a known and guaranteed return over the investment period. This predictability can be reassuring for conservative investors.

Low Risk

Fixed deposits are low-risk investments because they are backed by the guarantee of the bank or financial institution offering them. In Nigeria, there are regulatory mechanisms in place to ensure the safety of deposits up to a certain limit.


While fixed deposits are designed to be held until maturity for optimal returns, many banks offer the option of premature withdrawal in case of emergencies.

However, this may come with a penalty and possibly a lower interest rate on the withdrawn amount.


Fixed deposits can be a part of a diversified investment portfolio. While they may not offer high returns compared to riskier assets, they provide stability and can be a useful component for balancing overall portfolio risk.

Easy to Understand

Fixed deposits are straightforward financial instruments. The terms and conditions, including the interest rate and maturity period, are typically easy to understand, making them suitable for investors who prefer simplicity.

Potential Drawbacks of Fixed Deposit Accounts

While the importance of fixed deposits goes without saying, it's essential to consider some factors and potential drawbacks.

Some of them may include:

Inflation Risk

In some cases, the interest earned on fixed deposits might not keep pace with inflation, potentially leading to a reduction in the real purchasing power of your returns.

Interest Rate Risk

If you lock in your money at a fixed interest rate, you might miss out on higher rates offered in the future if market interest rates rise.

Tax Implications

Interest earned on fixed deposits is often taxable. Understanding the tax implications is crucial to evaluating the actual return on your investment.

In summary, fixed deposits can be a safe and reliable investment option, especially for conservative investors seeking stability. 

You can also read more about this here. 

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